Emergency
P. 176
Sanitation
P. 198
Survival Tips
Life
P. 206
In the event of a disaster, water supply, gas and
Confirm Safety
power lines may all come to a stop. You will be
P. 226
unable to get your hands on almost all the things
you need for daily life. You will have to live for about
three days to one week on just limited resources.
In this chapter, we have collected various types of
knowledge and ingenuity that will be useful when
a disaster occurs, and use illustrations to explain
4
them in an easy-to-understand manner. Why not
also take up the challenge of holding a practical
workshop as explained at the end of the chapter?
174
175
Cardiopulmonary
Resuscitation (CPR)
4
Chest compression
Place your hands on the center of the
person’s chest, and press the chest down
Check to see if the person is
at least 5 centimeters for an adult. Do
1
about 100 compressions per minute.
conscious
When you are conducting both chest
In the event of a disaster, ambulances
compressions and artificial respiration,
will probably be late in arriving. If you
conduct cycles of 30 chest compressions
find a person who has collapsed, gently
and 2 breaths.
tap him on the shoulder and ask loudly,
“Are you OK?” Check to see if he
responds, can move his hands and feet, if
5
Artificial respiration
he is in pain from injuries, and whether
he is conscious or not.
Lift the person’s chin to open the airway,
and use the thumb and forefinger of
your hand placed on his forehead to
2
Request cooperation from
pinch his nose. Using a mouth-to-mouth
others around you
resuscitation mouthpiece*, cover the
If there is no response, request the
mouth so no air leaks, and breathe in for
cooperation of people nearby by calling out
about 1 second. Check to see that his
chest rises when you do so.
4
in a large voice, “Someone, please come!
There’s a person here who needs help!”
In addition, if the situation is safe, request
6
AED
someone to bring an AED (automatic
external defibrillator) and give first aid.
Press the power button of the AED.
Apply the electrode pads to his chest, and
if a shock is needed the AED will inform
3
Check for breathing
you with a voice prompt. Stand clear of
Closely observe the movements of the
the person and push the AED’s button.
person’s chest and abdomen, and confirm
Follow the device’s instruction and
within 10 seconds if his breathing is
immediately resume chest compressions.
irregular. When there is no movement of
the chest or abdomen, you can determine
that the person is not breathing normally,
and then begin chest compressions.
* The risk of infection is said to be extremely low even when a mouthpiece is not used, however,
from the perspective of preventing infection, it would be safer to use one.
176
177
Stop Bleeding
Direct pressure to stop
bleeding
Directly apply sterile gauze or a clean
cloth to the bleeding and compress
strongly with your hand or a bandage.
The size of the cloth should be large
enough to completely cover the wound.
In order to prevent infection, always wear
rubber gloves or use a plastic bag, and be
careful to not come in contact with the
Arterial bleeding
Venous bleeding
blood.
Blood spurts out
Constant flow of blood
Indirect pressure to
4
stop bleeding
When it is difficult to stop the bleeding
through the direct pressure method, try
indirect pressure. Temporarily stop the
flow of blood by pressing down on the
Capillary bleeding
artery between the injury and the heart,
compressing it against the bone. For
Blood oozes out slowly
bleeding from the lower portion of the
arm, use your thumb to strongly press the
artery at the center of the inner side of the
Severe bleeding can be life threatening
upper arm. For leg bleeding, straighten
The total amount of blood in the human body makes up about 7 to 8 percent of the
the bleeding leg and strongly press down
body’s weight, and losing one-third of this blood can be life threatening. Arterial
at the groin using your fist.
bleeding with bright red spurts of blood must be stopped immediately. Bleeding from
capillary veins will, in most cases, stop naturally.
Details → p. 263
178
179
First-Aid for Fractures and
First-Aid for Cuts
Sprains
Materials
Cloth, bandages, water, sterile gauze
1
2
Secure with a splint
Try not to move the part that has been broken and is painful. Prepare something that
can serve as a splint to support the broken bone, and immobilize the injury by binding
Prepare large pieces of cloth or bandages
If the wound has dirt or other debris,
the splint and the joints on both sides of the fracture with a cloth, etc.
that can cover the wound.
wash clean with water.
4
3
4
Triangular bandage
A triangular bandage can be used on any part of the body, and scarves,
furoshiki, and large handkerchiefs can also serve as triangular bandages. Use it
If the wound is bleeding, protect the
Wrap a bandage.
after rinsing the wound clean with water and applying a sterile gauze, etc. Do
wound by applying sterile gauze, etc.
not tie the knot right over the wound.
180
181
Lighten the Burden of the
First-Aid for Burns
Injured and Ill
Cool minor burns with
water
If the burn covers less than 10 percent
of the body (the area of the palm of
your hand is about 1 percent of the body
surface), as soon as possible, cool with
clean water for over 15 minutes until the
pain eases.
Details → p. 262
Loosen clothing
Place the person in a comfortable position, ask if he is in pain, and if he wishes, gently
loosen his clothes, belt, and other constricting items.
4
Important points
Since tap water cannot be used when the water supply is cut off, use water from
a plastic bottle, etc. When tap water can be used, run cool water over the burn
for 15 to 20 minutes. Follow the points below when treating the burn.
- If the person is wearing clothes over the burn, do not remove, and cool over
the clothes.
- When the burn covers a wide area, take care to not overly cool the body.
- Take care not to break blisters.
- Do not use medicine.
Maintain body temperature
If the person has the chills, a low body temperature, is pale, or has broken into a cold
sweat, prevent heat loss by covering him with clothes, a blanket, etc.
Details → p. 194
182
183
Safely Positioning the Injured
or Ill
When there is abdominal pain or
When breathing is labored or
an injury to the abdomen
there are chest pains
Raise the upper body with cushions, etc., and
Put the person in a sitting position with
The basic position is laying face up
also place cushions under the knees to bend
his legs extended and place cushions, etc.,
them.
between his legs and chest to support his
Laying the person on his back on a level place is the basic position to take. It is the most stable
upper body.
and relaxing position.
4
When the person is vomiting or has an injury to the back
Is breathing but unconscious
Lay the person on his stomach, facing one side. Take care that he does not choke on
To secure an airway, place the person on his side with his top leg bent at a right angle
his vomit.
at the knee.
When there is a head injury and breathing is labored
Heat stroke, anemia, hemorrhagic shock
Lay the person on his back and use cushions, etc., to lift the upper body.
Lay the person face up and place cushions under his feet to lift the legs up about 15 to 30
centimeters.
184
185
Transporting the Injured or Ill
Bandage Substitutes
Materials
Gauze, tights
Carrying on your back
1
2
Lean the person on your back and catch
his legs by passing your hands under his
knees, and hold both of his arms firmly.
This is not suited to injured people who
have disorders of consciousness, broken
bones, or internal injuries.
Use tights as a substitute for a bandage.
Wind the leg portion of the tights around the
First, place gauze, etc., over the wound
head and tie the ends. If this is washed and
and then cover with the body portion of
kept clean, it can be used repeatedly.
the tights.
4
Other items that can substitute for bandages
Bandanna
Curtains
Handkerchief
Underwear
Tenugui towels
Disposable diapers
Necktie
Sanitary napkins
Towel
Plastic wrap
*only items that are clean
Using a stretcher, etc.
When carrying a person on a stretcher, have his legs point forward and try to avoid
shaking the stretcher or causing it to vibrate. This is very important to prevent the
condition of the victim from worsening. If there is no stretcher, it would be possible to
use a strong plank, etc., instead.
186
187
How to Use the Fire
How to Use the Indoor Fire
Extinguisher
Hose
The No. 1 model fire hose is to be manned by more than one person. Here it is
Note
assumed that there are two people.
1
2
1
2
First response firefighting is very
Remove the safety pin on the top of the
important in a disaster. When using a fire
extinguisher.
extinguisher, first confirm the source of
Press the start button. When the red
Open the cabinet and extend the hose.
fire. Stand so the exit is behind you.
light starts to blink, the pump will begin
operating.
4
3
4
3
4
Hold the nozzle and aim it at the flame.
Squeeze the handle and spray the agent
The other person opens the valve.
Aim the nozzle at the source of the fire
directly on the source of fire. If the
and spray water.
flames reach the ceiling, stop trying to
extinguish the fire and evacuate.
188
189
How to Use the Portable
How to Use the Standpipe
Fire Pump
This is a fire extinguishing tool that uses the fire hydrant or drain valve in the road.
Note
Prior training is required to use it.
Note
This is to be manned by more than one person. Prior training is required to use it.
1
2
1
2
This is a fire pump of a size that can be
Place the suction pipe in a fire cistern,
carried by people. First, close the drain
pool, etc.
This is effective in places like narrow
Join the standpipe to the water outlet.
cock and water hose outlet valve, and
roads inaccessible by fire trucks.
Turn the spindle driver, and after
attach the suction pipe to the pump’s
First, insert the key, bend your knees
confirming that water is flowing, extend
4
water inlet.
to take a low position, and lift the lid.
the hose joined to the pipe.
3
4
3
4
Join the hose to the nozzle. Insert it
Straighten the hose, and after signaling,
Start the pump, attach the hose to the
Spray water in the direction of the fire
firmly until you hear a noise.
spray the water. Point the nozzle at the
outlet, and extend the hose to the source
source.
target, and hold it firmly at the height of
of fire.
your hip.
190
191
Warm Yourself with
Newspapers
Make something to
wear
Use with a plastic bag
Newspapers can be useful when you
Crumple newspaper into balls, place
aren’t wearing enough to keep warm.
them in a large plastic bag, and put your
Place several layers of newspapers on
feet inside. It will be warmer if you
your shoulders, binding them at the front
loosely close the mouth of the bag.
with tape, etc.
Make a“haramaki”
Layer with socks
belly warming band
4
When your feet are cold, wrap newspaper
Yo u c a n a l s o w a r m y o u r b o d y b y
over your socks, and put on another pair
wearing a belly band. Use two sheets of
of socks over them.
newspaper and plastic wrap. Fold the
newspaper in half and wrap around your
abdomen, and then wind plastic wrap on
top.
Other useful items
Use the effects of color to adjust your body temperature
To wear:
To put on the floor:
It is said that when people look at warm colors like red, their temperatures rise,
- Fruit protection net
- Handkerchief
- Cardboard
and when they see cool colors like blue, their temperatures drop. Try using
- Aluminum foil
- Bubble wrap
- Styrene foam
this effect in selecting your clothes or the color of partitions at the evacuation
- Plastic wrap
center.
192
193
Adjust Your Body
Temperature
You can adjust your body temperature by heating or cooling the back of your neck,
under your arms, and above your tailbone. Use this method to keep warm or prevent
heat stroke.
Warm/cool your neck
Wrap a muffler or towel around your
Back of the neck
neck when you are cold. If you are hot,
Just wrapping a muffler around the point
place an ice pack behind your neck and
on the back of your neck that improves
wrap a towel, etc.
blood circulation will significantly help
maintain your body temperature. It would
also be effective to cool this point when
it’s hot.
Underarms
Warm/cool your
Because there is a large artery near the
underarms
surface, warming or cooling this area will
Your whole body will be warmed if you
have effects on your whole body.
place a plastic bottle with hot water under
4
your arm. You should place cold packs
Above the tailbone
under your arms when it’s hot.
Adjusting the temperature above the
tailbone is an easy way to adjust your
body temperature.
Make a hot water bottle
Warm the area above
Plastic bottle, water, hot water, funnel,
Materials
your tailbone
container such as a bucket, towel
Your whole body will be warmed if you
Mix equal portions of tap water and
apply a body warmer to the area above
boiling water to make lukewarm water
your tailbone. If you can obtain a body
about 60 degrees Celsius. Pour this into a
warmer, you should first use it on this
strong plastic bottle, and wrap in a towel
area.
to prevent low-temperature burns.
194
195
Protect Your Feet
Prevent Dehydration
Materials
Water, sugar, salt
Protect your feet and
shoes from water
Materials Plastic bag, string
4 tbsp. sugar
In a disaster-stricken area where it
is difficult to walk, you will need to
0.5 tsp. salt
protect your feet. To keep your shoes
from getting wet, cover each shoe with
a plastic bag and tie it up with string
around the ankles.
Protect your feet and
shoes from rubble
Materials
Plastic bag, board, string
4
After placing plastic bags over your shoes
as explained above, place something hard
like a board under your shoes and tie it
with a string so it doesn’t loosen.
1 liter water
Why protect your feet?
In order to prevent dehydration, it would be good to prepare an oral rehydration
In the event of a disaster it would be very important for you to not
solution, which has an absorption rate that is about 25 times higher than water. The
injure yourself. The disaster-stricken area will be strewn with rubble,
only things necessary are water, sugar and salt. Dissolve 4 tablespoons of sugar (about
have puddles of water, and will be harder to walk through than you can
40 grams) and 0.5 teaspoons of salt (about 4 grams) in 1 liter of water.
imagine. In order to prevent injury from nails and sharp materials, you
should learn in advance how to protect your feet.
196
197
How to Store Water
How to Carry Water
Items to carry water
Store as drinking water
easily
When storing water, fill tap water up to the
mouth of a clean container such as a plastic
A polyethylene tank and carrying cart
bottle. If you store it away from direct
will be convenient in carrying water
sunlight, it can be used as drinking water
from a water supply point. Putting water
for about three days. However, you will
in plastic bottles and carrying them in
have to change the water every day if the
backpacks, etc., will also help when
water has passed through a water purifier
walking over rough roads.
as this will have removed chlorine and its
disinfecting effects.
Using plastic bags and
cardboard boxes
Materials
Cardboard box, plastic bag, adhesive tape
When you do not have a polyethylene tank
4
Store as domestic
or plastic bottles, spread a polyethylene bag
water
inside a cardboard box, and firmly reinforce
this by taping cloth adhesive tape on the
The bathtub at general households can
bottom and sides before use.
hold about 180 liters of water. If water
is stored in the bathtub, it can be used
for domestic purposes such as laundry,
Using plastic bags and
cleaning, toilets and sprinkling.
furoshiki wrapping cloth
Materials
Plastic bag, furoshiki wrapping cloth
Place water in a plastic bag and tie the
mouth. Place this in the center of a furoshiki
wrapping cloth that has its adjacent corners
tied together. If two people each hold one
of the knots, the water can be easily carried.
198
199
How to Use the Toilet When
How to Make an Emergency
Water Supply Is Cut Off
Toilet
Existing toilet that
Western toilet
can't be flushed
For a western toilet, if the toilet can be
Materials
Plastic bags, newspaper
flushed even though the water supply is
interrupted, you can do this by pouring
Lift the toilet seat, and cover the toilet
about a bucket of water into the toilet
bowl with a plastic bag. Use a second
bowl. Don’t flush urine every time, and
plastic bag to cover the toilet seat, and
don’t flush down toilet paper but throw it
place torn pieces of newspaper in the
away as trash.
bag.
Portable emergency toilet
Japanese toilet
Large bucket (or cardboard box), plastic
4
For a Japanese toilet, if the toilet can be
Materials
bags, newspaper
flushed even though the water supply is
interrupted, you can do this by pouring a
Place two plastic bags inside the large
bucket of water all at once into the toilet
bucket or cardboard box, and place torn
bowl while pressing down the flush lever.
pieces of newspaper in the bag. After
Don’t flush down toilet paper but throw it
using the toilet, remove the top plastic
away as trash.
bag and take it to a designated area.
200
201
How to Make Emergency
How to Make a Cloth Sanitary
Diapers
Napkin
Materials
Plastic supermarket bag, cotton cloth (or towel), scissors
Materials
Towel handkerchief, tissue paper (or cloth)
1
2
1
2
Cut the top of the grip portion and both Lay the baby down with his bottom on
Fold the two diagonal corners of a
If tissue paper or cloth is available,
sides of a large plastic supermarket bag, top of the cloth, and tie the upper grip
towel handkerchief (a clean, cotton
put some inside. You can rest
and open it. Fold a clean cotton cloth or portions over his stomach.
towel handkerchief would be best) to
assured at night if the napkin is
4
towel on top of this.
a size that fits your underwear.
worn with the wider side in the
back.
3
4
Other items that can replace sanitary napkins
Wrap your underwear with plastic wrap.
Use folded pieces of toilet paper or tissue paper
If you have just one napkin left, place toile
t
paper on top of it.
Use clean towels or cloth that can be
thrown away after use.
Lift the lower grip portions and pass
Fold the surplus part of the bag down.
them under the tie around the baby’s
stomach.
202
203
Keep Clean with Little Water
Make a Fly Trap
Materials
Japanese sake, sugar, vinegar, plastic bottle, string, box cutter
Wipe your body with a
1
2
small amount of water
Towel, no-rinse or non-residue
Materials
soap
If you wipe your body with a towel using
a no-rinse or non-residue soap (can be
purchased at a drug store, etc.), you can
keep clean with little water.
Place 70 cc of sake, 100 g of sugar, and 50
Open about a 3cm hole in the upper half
Brush your teeth
cc of vinegar in a plastic bottle, screw on the
of the bottle, and hang the bottle by a
4
without a toothbrush
cap, and shake to mix.
string under the eaves, from a laundry
pole, etc. Flies attracted by the smell will
Materials
Gauze, tissue paper
go into the bottle and not be able to get
out.
Wrap a piece of gauze about 15x15cm large,
or tissue paper around your finger, and scrub
your teeth until they feel clean. Also wipe
your gums and tongue, and then rinse your
mouth with water.
Why is a fly trap necessary?
It is predicted that there will be an outbreak of flies in the summer. In order to
maintain a sanitary environment not only at home, but at the evacuation center
or temporary housing as well, it is recommended that you get rid of flies by
making a fly trap.
204
205
How to Make an Emergency
Change the Size of the
Lantern
Battery
Change an AA battery
Use a plastic bag
into a C battery
Materials
Flashlight, white plastic bag,
Materials
AA battery, cloth, cellophane tape
scissors
Cover the flashlight with a white plastic
Cut cloth such as towels or handkerchiefs
bag and tie the grip portion around it.
to match the height of the AA battery,
The light will gently spread through the
and wrap it around the battery. When the
whole bag.
diameter becomes 2.6 cm, tape it with
cellophane tape.
Change an AA battery
into a D battery
Use a plastic bottle
AA battery, cloth, aluminum foil,
Materials
cellophane tape
Flashlight, plastic bottle, water,
4
Materials
scissors
Cut cloth such as towels or handkerchiefs
to match the length of the AA battery,
1
2
and wrap it around the battery. When the
diameter becomes 3.4 cm, tape it with
cellophane tape. Adjust the length of the
battery using crumpled aluminum foil.
Substitutes for aluminum foil
Anything that can pass an electric current can be used. If you don’t have
aluminum foil, try using some other everyday item.
- Stack and tape together seven 1 yen coins
Cut an empty plastic bottle at a point about 5 cm Stand the flashlight inside the cut plastic
- Stack and tape together seven 10 yen coins
higher than the flashlight, and make cuts 1 to 2 bottle, and on top of it place another
cm long at four places along the rim.
plastic bottle containing water.
(Do not combine 1 yen and 10 yen coins.)
206
207
How to Make Plates and Eating
Utensils
Make a plate from a plastic bottle
Materials
Plastic bottle, box cutter, scissors
Make a dish from newspaper
Materials
Newspaper, plastic bag
1
2
1
2
Use a box cutter to cut the top off of a
Cut the bottle along its length. The
Fold a newspaper into a triangle, and
Place a plastic bag over the folded
2-liter plastic bottle. Be careful not to cut
bottom of the bottle will be too stiff to
fold along the dotted line in the drawing
newspaper and tie the bottom of the
your hands.
cut with the box cutter, so use a large
to make a cup with a bottom.
bag. This can be used as plate or a
pair of scissors.
cup.
4
Make a spoon from a milk carton
Materials
Milk carton, scissors
Make a cup out of a plastic bottle
Plastic bottle, scissors (box cutter)
Materials
1
2
1
2
Cut off the top triangular portion of
Fold the cut portion and cut along the
the milk carton, and cut the carton
dotted lines in the illustration, to make a
Cut the upper portion of the plastic bottle
Make the cut edge as smooth as possible
into four pieces by cutting along its
spoon. By changing the angle of the cut,
using a box cutter or scissors.
to prevent injury.
length down the center of each side.
the depth of the spoon can be changed.
208
209
How to Make an Emergency
Cooking Stove
Aluminum cans, aluminum foil, string, toothpicks, scissors, vegetable oil
Materials
Bend the aluminum foil with the wicks
1
4
into a triangle, and place this inside the
Take 17 cm of aluminum foil, and fold
4 cm aluminum can. Place vegetable oil
he sheet into four, and then fold both
t
inside and let the wicks absorb the oil.
ides to meet in the center.
s
Use a tooth pick to open holes in the foil
Complete the cooking stove by evenly
2
5
in a total of 6 places: two in the center,
spacing the 5 cm aluminum cans around
and two each at about 2 cm from the left
the 4 cm can.
and right sides. Insert 10 cm long pieces
4
of string, and set them to emerge about
3mm from the top of the aluminum foil.
If you don’t have any string, twisted
pieces of tissue paper can also be used.
6
Adjust the position of the 5 cm cans to fit
3
the size of the pot or pan.
Using a pair of sharp scissors, cut two
aluminum cans at points 5 cm from the
top and 4 cm from the bottom. Wear
work gloves when you cut the cans and
be careful. The 4 cm piece will be the
burner and the 5 cm piece will be the
trivet where pots or pans are placed
210
211
Making Partitions
How to Make a Knapsack
Materials
Cardboard box, tape, scissors
Materials
Long pants, string (about 2 meters long)
1
2
1
2
Open up a sturdy cardboard box, and cut
The resulting four portions will become the
Use the string to tie the bottom portion
Fold the pants at around the knees, and
so that the corner portion comes in the
stands for cardboard box partitions.
of the two legs of the pants. Tie the
pass the string through the belt loops.
center of the left and right sides.
string so that the two ends are equal in
4
length.
3
4
3
Make triangular shapes out of these
Insert other opened cardboard boxes
Make the leg portions the shoulder straps of the knapsack so it can be carried on your back.
portions and tape together at the top, to
(partitions) into the stands. The space
Firmly tie the string that has been passed through the belt loop to prevent the contents from
create the stands.
between the stands is adjusted to fit the
spilling out.
size of the partition box.
212
213
How to Make Cushions and
How to Make a Bed
Pillows
Materials
Large plastic sheets, cardboard boxes, polystyrene foam, newspaper
Make a cushion from a
plastic bag
Plastic bag, string
Materials
Fill one-third or one-half of a plastic
bag with air. The bag can be easily filled
by raising the bag and quickly lowering
it. Adjust the amount of air to your
preference, and close the mouth of the
bag.
Newspaper
Polystyrene foam
Use a ball as a pillow
4
Materials
ball
Cardboard box
If the evacuation center is a school
or gymnasium, use the balls there as
Plastic sheet
pillows. Insert the inflator that is stored
with the balls into the ball’s hole.
Remove air until you achieve the height
preferred for use as a pillow.
Place the plastic sheet on the floor, and place cardboard boxes and polystyrene foam
on top of it. This will create a bed that is cushiony and has thermal insulation effects
for protection from cold coming from the floor. Cover with newspapers.
214
215
How to Tie Ropes
Clove
Used to tie a rope to a column or pole. It is good for knots in crafts and tying
Square
Can be used to extend the length of a rope by tying ropes of equal thickness
hitch
small things.
knot
together, etc. Can also be used in tying triangular cloth.
1
2
1
2
Cross two ropes
Bring the ends together and cross again.
3
Place the rope around the pole twice.
Pull the ends to firmly tighten the knot.
Tuck the first loop under the rope.
4
Pull tight and make sure the knot isn’t
loose.
Use of ropes
If you have poles or rods and rope, you can make a clothes line that will be
useful at evacuation centers or emergency housing, or in making partitions to
protect your privacy.
216
217
Exercises for Evacuation Life
These are exercises that people living in evacuation centers or temporary housing can
do to help maintain or restore their physical and mental capabilities.
Joint circles and bends/extensions (3 minutes)
Stretch exercises (3 minutes)
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
4
Neck circles (right
Wrist and ankle
Knee circles (right
Hip circles (right
Hands
Side extensions
Opening shoulder
Upper body twist
and left, 4 times)
circles (right and left,
and left, 10 times)
and left, 10 times)
5 times)
overhead
(left/right)
blades
(left/right)
5
6
7
8
5
6
7
8
Chest
Lower back
Leg stretch
Calf/Achilles tendon
extension
extension
(left/right)
(left/right)
Knee bends
Leg/knee side extension
Ground stamp
Wide squat
(10 or more)
(left/right)
(right and left,
(10 times)
10 times)
218
219
Children Playing
A major disaster will leave mental scars on both adults and children. But while children
may be smiling or quiet even when they are under great stress, it does not mean that
they are okay. By playing, children will be able to reconfirm their feeling of safety, rid
themselves of the stress of evacuation life, and express feelings that they are hiding deep
inside (sorrow, anger, remorse, loneliness, etc.). If children can play well under the close
watch of supporters, they will be able to sense that they are controlling their feelings.
Devise ways for children to play that matches their age.
Physical activities
Crafts
Dodgeball, baseball using hands to hit the
Making things with origami, newspaper,
ball, jump rope, etc.
clay, etc.
4
Hand games (small children)
Rock-Paper-Scissors train
Do simple hand games like “head,
A rock-paper-scissors game that can be played
Games that don
t need props
Other
shoulder, knees and toes” or hand
by many children. First, two children do rock-
Quizzes, tag, hide-and-seek, red rover,
Reading picture books, playing with
clapping games.
paper-scissors, the one who loses stands behind
freeze tag, statues, follow the leader, etc.
dolls (puppets), games such as shogi, go,
the winner, and the winner does this with
cards, etc.
another person, and so on, to form “trains.”
220
221
Good Ways to Use Everyday
Items
Plastic Wrap
Newspapers
Use to keep warm
Protect a wound after the
As a splint for fractures
Place in clothes for thermal
bleeding has been stopped
insulation
Fold two newspapers and wrap around your
Layer newspapers like a board and place
After stopping the bleeding, wind the
If newspapers are placed between your
abdomen. Wind plastic wrap around this.
this on the broken bone up to the joints
plastic wrap around the wound. Plastic
under and outer wear when it is cold, a
This will help retain body heat and keep you
on both sides.
wrap can effectively protect the wound
layer of air will be formed to keep you
warm.
because it is very airtight.
4
warm.
Attaching a splint
Cover dishes
Use as a cover
Make playthings
Plastic wrap is effective in attaching a
When water supply is interrupted, it is
If there are no blankets or comforters,
Crumple one sheet of newspaper into a ball, and
splint, such as a rod or board, to a broken
difficult to wash dishes. If food is placed
just covering yourself with newspapers
layer newspapers over this. Adjust the shape
bone. Thoroughly wind the plastic wrap
on dishes that have been covered with
can make a big difference in keeping you
and secure firmly with tape.
to keep the splint from moving.
plastic wrap, you will not have to wash
warm.
the dishes.
222
223
Plastic Bags
Large handkerchief
Protect yourself from infection
Transport water in a hygienic way
As a mask
Attaching a splint
In order to prevent infection from treating
If you don’t have a clean plastic tank or
Dust is expected to fly during a disaster.
A large handkerchief is effective in
a wound, it is important to avoid touching
plastic bottle, water can be transported in
Make a simple mask by covering
attaching a splint, such as a rod or board,
blood by using rubber gloves, etc. A clean
a hygienic way by covering a container
your nose and mouth with a large
to a broken bone. Tie in several places to
plastic bag can also be used.
with a plastic bag.
handkerchief.
keep the splint from moving.
4
Cover dishes
If you cover dishes you can reduce the
For the toilet
As an arm sling
Stop bleeding
number of items that need to be washed.
When you can’t use the toilet because the water
After attaching a splint to a broken arm,
When bleeding from an artery, use
You will also run out of paper dishes if
supply is interrupted, use plastic bags filled with
an arm sling, using a triangular cloth,
as a compression bandage to stop the
you dispose of them each time they are
newspaper.
should be used to immobilize the arm. A
bleeding.
used, so cover them with a plastic bag.
Refer → p. 201
Refer → p. 179
handkerchief can be used in place of the
triangular cloth.
224
225
Disaster Emergency
Disaster Message Board
Message Dial
(Mobile Phones)
Leave a message
Listen to a message
Post a message
Read a message
Dial
171
Choose“Disaster Message Board”on the main page
Press 1
Press 2
Choose “Register Messages”
Choose “Confirm Messages”
Choose your current
Enter the mobile phone number
If you are a disaster survivor, enter your home phone number.
situation / condition
of the person whom you wish to
If not, enter the phone number of the person in the disaster-stricken
(You can also enter your
confirm the safety of
area whom you wish to contact, starting with the area code.
message)
(XXX)-XXX-XXX
4
Press 1#
Press 1#
Choose“Register”on the page
Choose“Search”on the page
Record your message
Message playback begins
Message registered
Search results displayed
(within 30 seconds)
Press 9# (end)
Dial 171 and follow the voice guidance (in Japanese) to leave or play back messages.
This message board service is provided by mobile phone carriers to enable people to
Because each recording is up to 30 seconds, prepare a brief message that contains
confirm the safety of each other via text messages. To use the service, visit the portal
necessary information only. Each message will be saved for 48 hours. You can practice
site of your carrier from your mobile phone. You can practice using the service on
using the service on days such as the 1st and 15th days of each month.
days such as the 1st and 15th days of each month.
Details → p. 272
226
227
Take Action to Get
DO
NOW
Your Family Prepared
Try the disaster preparedness steps outlined in this manual with your family. Here is
Role-playing: 15 minutes
an example of how you could use one weekend day to prepare for a disaster with your
After you have imagined what the moment will be like, practice the
family, while also having fun.
actions outlined on pp. 17-25, assuming that a major earthquake
10:45
has just occurred.
Convene: 15 minutes
Gather your family and have each member talk about what they
Use the map to verify your evacuation area: 30 minutes
10:00
know about disasters and disaster prevention and what they hope to
See the accompanying map and actually go to the evacuation area
accomplish over the course of the day.
in your neighborhood. Also, confirm matters such as a safe meeting
11:00
place and how you will contact each other in case mobile phones and
Imagine what will happen when a disaster occurs: 30 minutes
other services are interrupted. Take down this information on the
If a major earthquake occurs, what will happen to your family? To learn
pages of this manual set aside for notes. You can also use the Bosai
more about what the situation will be like, read Chapter 1 of this manual
10:15
the Rhino cartoon flip book (bottom right corner of each page) to
“Simulation of a Major Earthquake” with your family. Then walk around
confirm the actions you should take when a major earthquake occurs.
your home and have each member of your family imagine what it will be
like.
4
Things to confirm
Check points
Your evacuation area and evacuation routes
Details → p. 115
Where is a safe place to protect yourself?
Where to meet up
Take notes → p. 292
What will happen to the furniture and home appliances
in the living room?
How family members will contact each other
Details → p. 128
What if you’re sleeping in the bedroom?
Contact information for you and your familyTake notes → p. 294
What if you’re in the restroom or taking a bath?
228
229
Discuss what your family needs to prepare for a
Prepare: 1 hour
disaster: 30 minutes
Decide where to locate stockpiles and emergency bags, and arrange
Discuss what items your family need to stockpile, and make a shopping list.
11:30
1 5:00
them accordingly. Stabilize the furniture so that they will not fall,
See the household stockpile (pp. 86-91) and furniture stabilizing measures
topple over, or slide. Confirm that you have not missed anything by
(pp. 96-99) sections and find the disaster preparedness measures that best
referring to the furniture stabilizing checklist (pp. 100-103).
suit your family. In the afternoon, take time to go shopping. Prepare a list of
items necessary for your family, such as emergency supplies and furniture
stabilizing devices. The pages set aside to take notes in this manual will be
Check points
helpful.
Confirm the location of stockpiles
Confirm the location of emergency bags
Check points
Stabilizing measures appropriate for your furnishings
List of emergency stockpile items for your family
and home appliances
List of items to be put in emergency bags
Furniture stabilizing measures for each room of your
home
Wrap-up: 15 minutes
To wrap up the day, have each member of your family give one to
Lunch and shopping: 3 hours
16:00
two minutes of feedback. Share your frank thoughts with each other
so that everyone in your family will be safe if a disaster strikes.
Have lunch and then go and buy necessary items.
4
1 2:00
230
231
Hold a Community Event
DO
NOW
to Prepare for a Disaster
Program 2: Hands-on experience
This is the main event. Use this manual to practice solving problems that will occur when a disaster strikes.
We will introduce how to hold a hands-on event where participants can have
fun learning knowledge that will be truly helpful in the event of a disaster.
Practice solving problems that occur when a disaster strikes: 15 minutes for
Why not invite neighbors or hold an event at school, and build a solid
each exercise
community prepared for a disaster?
1. Present a problem
Participants
3-30 people
The moderator presents the first problem.
What to bring
This manual
Hours
1.5-3 hours
Exercise samples → pp. 234-235
Preparation
Person who will serve as a moderator
A space large enough to accommodate the participants
Tools
Scissors, box cutters, glue, pliers, nippers
Materials
Table with a lot of materials on it
(Refer to pp. 234-235 for exercise samples and materials to prepare.)
2. Teams look for solutions
Members of each team cooperate with
each other to solve the problem, using
Program 1: Imagine the moment
4
the contents of this manual and various
materials.
Read the experience of survivors: 15 minutes
First, have all the participants read the experience of
earthquake survivors. It is important that everyone is aware of
what it is really like to experience an earthquake.
Experience → p. 72
3. Each team presents a solution
When the problem is solved, a team
Opening: 15 minutes
member raises his/her hand and the
Ask the participants to separate into teams consisting of four
moderator examines the solution. Once
or less people each. If possible, place people who have never
all teams find the answer, move on to the
talked to each other on the same team. After they are divided
next problem. Spend about 15 minutes on
into teams, have the members of each team share their names,
each problem.
occupations, and what they thought about the experience of
survivors, allowing each to talk for about three minutes.
232
233
Shuffle team members and closing: 15 minutes
Problem
We need dishes and spoons to distribute meals. Let’s make
Getting to know many people is another objective of this event. After the exercises,
them.
shuffle the team members. Once each new team is formed, members talk for three
Materials
Plastic bottles, milk cartons, newspaper
minutes each, giving their names, occupations and their thoughts on the event.
Answer
p. 208
Problem
Let’s learn how to tie ropes tightly. Tie a clove hitch and square
knot.
Materials
Ropes
Answer
p. 216
Problem
There is no light due to a power failure. How can we make a
light?
Materials
Flashlights, white plastic bags, plastic bottles, water
Answer
p. 206
Problem
It’s getting chilly. Think about how we can warm ourselves with
newspapers.
Materials
Newspaper, plastic bags, plastic wrap
Answer
p. 192
Exercise samples (pp. 192-217)
4
Problem
There is no D battery. Make a substitute using an AA battery.
Materials
Flashlight that works on a D battery, AA battery, cloth, aluminum
Having these versatile materials at the event could be helpful.
foil
Answer
p. 207
- Newspaper
- Paper
- Rubber bands
Problem
There is no toilet. Make an emergency toilet using materials
- Cardboard
- Cloth
- Paper clips
available here.
- Plastic bags
- Plastic wrap
- Garbage bags
Materials
Bucket, plastic bags, newspaper
- Plastic bottles
- Aluminum foil
- Ropes
Answer
p. 201
- Paper cartons
- Sterile gauze
- Clothes you no
Problem
You have come to an evacuation center. Let’s make a bed and
longer wear
pillow.
Materials
Cardboard, newspaper, polystyrene foam, large plastic sheets, ball
Answer
pp. 214-215
If you prepare ample amounts of versatile materials,
such as those listed above, event participants might be
able to come up with their own versions of helpful items.
Cooperate with the members of your team and look into
various solutions.
234
235