Seismology
“Seismology is the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth or through other planet-like bodies.”

seismology
Seismic Hazard
“A seismic hazard is the probability that an earthquake will occur in a given geographic area, within a given window of time, and with ground motion intensity exceeding a given threshold.”
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Seismic Waves
“Seismic waves are waves of energy that travel through the Earth’s layers, and are a result of an earthquake, explosion, or a volcano that gives out low-frequency acoustic energy.”
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Tectonic Plates
“Tectonic plates are pieces of Earth’s crust and uppermost mantle, together referred to as the lithosphere. The plates are around 100 km thick and consist of two principal types of material: oceanic crust and continental crust.”
TectonicPlates
Seismometer
“A seismic hazard is the probability that an earthquake will occur in a given geographic area, within a given window of time, and with ground motion intensity exceeding a given threshold.”

TectonicPlates
Seismic Zone
“A seismic zone is a region in which the rate of seismic activity remains fairly consistent. This may mean that seismic activity is incredibly rare, or that it is extremely common.” seismiczone
Geophysics
“Geophysics is a subject of natural science concerned with the physical processes and physical properties of the Earth and its surrounding space environment, and the use of quantitative methods for their analysis.”
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Seismograph
"Instrument, which detects and records ground motion (and especially vibrations due to earthquakes) along with timing information. It consists of a seismometer, a precise timing device and a recording unit (often including telemetry" seismograph
Subduction Zone
"An elongated region along which a crustal plate descends relative to another crustal block, for example, the descent of the Pacific plate beneath the Andean plate along the Andean trench."
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Focal Mechanism
The focal mechanism of an earthquake describes the deformation in the source region that generates the seismic waves. In the case of a fault-related event it refers to the orientation of the fault plane that slipped and the slip vector and is also known as a fault-plane solution.
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Earthquakes and Faults
Earthquakes occur on faults – strike-slip earthquakes occur on strike-slip faults, normal earthquakes occur on normal faults, and thrust earthquakes occur on thrust or reverse faults. When an earthquake occurs on one of these faults, the rock on one side of the fault slips with respect to the other.
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Types of Plate Boundaries
1. Convergent boundaries - where two plates are colliding.
2. Divergent boundaries – where two plates are moving apart.
3. Transform boundaries – where plates slide passed each other.
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Body Waves
Traveling through the interior of the earth, body waves arrive before the surface waves emitted by an earthquake. These waves are of a higher frequency than surface waves.
P Waves
P wave or Primary wave is the fastest kind of seismic wave, and, consequently, the first to ‘arrive’ at a seismic station. The P wave can move through solid rock and fluids, like water or the liquid layers of the earth. It pushes and pulls the rock it moves through just like sound waves push and pull the air. P waves are also known as compressional waves, because of the pushing and pulling they do. Subjected to a P wave, particles move in the same direction that the the wave is moving in, which is the direction that the energy is traveling in, and is sometimes called the ‘direction of wave propagation pwaves
S Waves
S wave or secondary wave, is slower than a P wave and can only move through solid rock, not through any liquid medium. It is this property of S waves that led seismologists to conclude that the Earth’s outer core is a liquid. S waves move rock particles up and down, or side-to-side–perpendicular to the direction that the wave is traveling in the direction of wave propagation. swaves
Surface Waves
Travelling only through the crust, surface waves are of a lower frequency than body waves, and are easily distinguished on a seismogram as a result. Though they arrive after body waves, it is surface waves that are almost enitrely responsible for the damage and destruction associated with earthquakes.
Love Waves
Love wave, was named after A.E.H. Love, a British mathematician who worked out the mathematical model for this kind of wave in 1911. It’s the fastest surface wave and moves the ground from side-to-side. Confined to the surface of the crust, Love waves produce entirely horizontal motional
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Rayleigh Waves
Rayleigh wave, was named for John William Strutt, Lord Rayleigh, who mathematically predicted the existence of this kind of wave in 1885. A Rayleigh wave rolls along the ground just like a wave rolls across a lake or an ocean. Because it rolls, it moves the ground up and down, and side-to-side in the same direction that the wave is moving. Most of the shaking felt from an earthquake is due to the Rayleigh wave, which can be much larger than the other waves.
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